PERSONAL CANCER STORY

Leonard Nourse :: AUTHOR OF KIDS STORIES + WRITER + CONTINUED RESEARCH IN NUTRITION

A Cancer story – Invite to Partake

This is an outline of my personal involvement in investigating the value of nutrition and other factors in improving the quality of life, which includes the control of cancer.

  1. It starts with my investigation of the value of nutrition and amygdalin in doing this. The results with rats was/is statistically significant. That using voluntary humans was positive. This is followed to what I now presently do and have done in dealing with cancer. This includes:
  2. Friedman’s ideas that an optimal high level of testosterone directs cancer cells to self-destruct. See his book; ‘How you and your doctor can fight breast cancer, prostate cancer and Alzheimer’s’. This works by maintaining a high optimal level of testosterone and controlling/limiting its enzymatic conversion to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and oestradiol (estradiol – American). The next step on how to continue was not clearly defined in his book and needs to be worked on.

    Point of note: Since this works, namely with prostate cancer, it should then be of value in all cancers. Personally, with prostate cancer with a PSA of 21, I followed Friedman’s suggestions of blocking the enzymatic conversion of testosterone to DHT using Finasteride, and its conversation to oestradiol (American; Estradiol) using Exemestane (Len additionally supplemented the latter with frequently eating mushrooms). This initially reduced his PSA down to 9 within a short while. Because of travel needs I did not carry out the next step*, and because I could not work how it should be done. (It involved playing around the level of the enzymatic conversions of Testosterone to DHT and oestradiol.) My PSA again slowly increased to above 20. On this I then worked on a sequence for the next step; whereby I daily blocked the conversion of testosterone to oestradiol but limited its conversion to DHT by eliminating the use Finasteride to only 9-days out of every 14 days. Doing this initially kept my PSA at a reasonably high level of between 12-16 going on 8 years now which includes use with point 3.

  3. Adding the ketosis (ketogenic diet) to Friedman’s ideas as outlined under point 2. I followed a suggestion of a friend (Paediatrician, now aged 83+) to investigate the value of ketosis in controlling cancer. Check the web Ketosis and cancer but as significant ketosis and health/ill health conditions. See ‘The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living’ by Jeff Volek and Stephen Phinney.

    In my case, prostate cancer which is discussed separately. This is discussed. In the literature it’s said that a high level, 2mM or more of optimum ketosis alone should be enough to control and eradicate cancer. I’m working on this In general, for optimal health and weight loss, a ketosis level of between 0.5-1.5mM/L need be obtained, if the diet supplies all the required essential nutrients. (A requirement from my own research experience over many years. This latter is something that is forgotten.) For cancer control, it is said the ketone body level needs to be 2mM/L or higher. This is not easy to attain, but my newest research shows this can be done. This, in my case, is done by fasting daily for 24 hours for 2-4 days. This then followed by a fast of 48 hours, followed by daily 24 days fasts, but for how long is still in investigation. To date this has been done for 8 consecutive days.

    Personally just working on the presentation/research by Volek and Phinney wrt Natural Ketosis, the best I have to date achieved is a ketosis level of 1.2mM/L, but on retaining a ketosis between 0.8-1.2mM/L my energy level is very good, noticeable higher than before introducing ketosis. [Personally, because of my habits, especially when travelling to visit family in South Africa and Australia it was not easy to maintain my desirable ketosis level of at least 0.8mM/L. At times my ketosis level dropped to as low as 0.5-0.3 mM/L. At the same time, it was possible my energy level was maybe somewhat decreased, but that’s a difficult judgement to personally make on one guinea pig, me. Other than that, health wise I didn’t feel any bad effects, as also judged by my pre-travel blood profile and hormone levels (up until September 2019

    My aim in using ketosis in health is to see if I can reduce my PSA to below 4. According to the literature I read this should be possible, especially if I do this in conjunction with maintaining desirable blood hormone levels. To date the latter is mostly being achieved but not always a ketosis level of 2.0mM/L or higher.

    Summary of my CV and Research in Helping Cancer Victims

    Qualifications

    1. BSc honours Biochemistry and Chemistry, MSc and PhD Biochemistry – Department of Biochemistry faculty of Agriculture, Natal University.
    2. Research for MSc and PhD degrees were carried out at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) – Pretoria, South Africa. 1961-1969 – Continued Basic Research in Biochemistry 1970-74
    3. Education in Animal Science and Nutrition at the “*University of EPOL Research Farm”, South Africa – 8 years – 1974 to1981. It includes my personal research in nutrition to meet the stress of ill health – was with permission of the management of the animal feed company, EPOL in the RSA.
    4. Continued research experience in nutrition to meet the stress of ill health at Dairy Science, Institute of Animal and Dairy Science – 11 years.
    5. Education in writing:
      • b) Writing course with Long Ridge Writing Group, US
      • c) University of “*CWG when living in Brisbane”; teachers - peers in this writing group.

      • *I trust two of the last three entries are enough to add a bit of humour to my expressions of my qualifications.



      Forward

      You, the readers, are invited to be part of this investigation. [Yes, I was naïve, see humorous story, ‘Naïve Len’ that will be found in my website.) This is my own private scientific investigation, into the literature and research, of the value of nutrition and other factors in the prevention and improvement in quality of life of cancer victims and possible cure. The personal danger of such can be seen in a search of the web –

      ‘Court cases involving the use of amygdalin/B17 in cancer 2019 – see: https://azcapitoltimes.com/news/2019/01/03/laetrile-bill-would-make-drug-illegal-in-arizona/. In this see the many that cover what is asked. [Shame, and at 82 so what. I first met this problem wrt the South African Medicines Control Board in the 1970’s. This is covered below. This story starts from an observation in research when I worked in Biochemistry at the CSIR in South Africa, studying protein synthesis in normal and cancer tissue in rat liver. From there I moved into research in animal feeding, where the significance of nutrient balance and level in preventing disease outbreaks was shown. I was then R&D manager of EPOL’s Animal Research farm and quality control laboratory. From this I designed experiments testing this principle in rat liver cancer induced by an Azo dye. In this experiment I also tested the added value of amygdalin in preventing this cancer. By chance this led me on to testing this with human cancers. [Was ‘officially’ illegal.]

      In this story, you will see that this can be done, even though I did not have it completely correct at that time – the 1970’s; namely to do with sequence of using Amygdalin. I now have, well at least much better, and hopefully with this experiment this can be tested. [But I know it will and is hard to overcome the negativity that has been put forward by AMA and other Medical Associations on things that help with cancer treatment – yes, that’s my gripe but is also that of many others – Google these.] By following the suggestions derived from this research your chances of getting cancer will be much reduced, and as will the health of those with cancer be much improved. At the worst, those with cancer, the quality of life you have left will at least be significantly improved, and at best cured.

      I’m not saying that those who have agreed to be, or are being treated, by the traditional methods of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, or combinations of these, must stop doing so. [Huh!]

      What I am saying is that if you include what I suggest, as part of your treatment, that in all cases your quality of life as well as chances of survival will be significantly improved.

      I’ll be passing this story around by Email, and maybe in LinkedIn, but eventually in my website – you are welcome to do so too. Be careful not to use the word cure, Big Brother will come down on you.

    6. As the heading implies, this is only an investigation. All the information I give is free – all aspects of it. All I’m asking is if you investigate what I say please, let me know the outcome. [For me at that time, 1970- 1990, the only mail connections available were the Post Offices.

      I realize, me, starting this investigational is like the saying – don’t put a cat among pigeons. The reverse though is more to the point; a pigeon in a den of cats. In my case the cats are the drug controlled medical establishments. If you study the literature, be that by Google and like, you will understand why I say this, as is shown. If you do this, you must look at both sides of the argument. That’s me and I can’t lose a job this time. I, though, might be damned for it, but that’s their worry.’



      The beginning

      This first part is only to tell you why Len did what he did.

      At the start of my research in Molecular Biology in 1961, investigating the function of 5SRNA, the results of which I presented at the International Congress of Biochemistry in Tokyo, 1967.

      I worked with a top scientist, Professor Arthur Owen Hawtrey, who was studying the mechanism of protein synthesis. Our experimental tissue was rat liver. Here we compared this mechanism in normal rat liver, and that in azo dye induced cancer in rat liver. The dye is a potent liver carcinogen. We housed the rats in our own feed room and fed the rats a diet made up of corn meal, some balanced meal and waste vegetables we obtained free from the market. [This was a nutrient deficient diet as I later realized. I was then only a molecular biologist and like many did not think about nutrition.] With this diet the amount of liver-tumour tissue induced by the carcinogen in 2-4 rats was adequate for our purposes.

      As rules in research became stricter as to how we treated and fed experimental animals, we were forced to house the rats in the animal research centre and feed them nutritionally balanced rat pellets. To obtain enough rat liver cancer tissue, we now needed 12 rats instead of 2-4. This observation, namely the decrease in the severity of the liver cancer caused by feeding rats a more nutritious diet, demonstrated the significance of good nutrition in animal health.

      When professor Hawtrey left to take up the chair of Biochemistry, in then Salisbury (Harare) I developed a method to grow this rat liver cancer in tissue culture, and this could be propagated infinitum. This more than met our needs. I then thought nothing more of it, other than note it. It’s a pity that then I did not know more, because this cancer grown in tissue culture would have been ideal for the future research I hoped to do. At that the time I was probing ideas on the importance of nutrition in health as well as alternative methods in treating cancer, I did not have the means to do this.


      Animal nutrition research

      In time, I took up a position as R&D manager of an animal feed research farm linked to a quality control laboratory belonging to EPOL, an animal feed company in South Africa. In this, I worked with a great team of animal scientists, three top veterinarians and the staff to run a top-quality control laboratory. As a team we investigated and had to deal with disease outbreaks in the company’s poultry and pig and other animal businesses, as well as those of our customers. Most significant, and thus critical, were outbreaks of Newcastle disease and Marek’s disease in chickens. Both are viral diseases. Marek's disease is a highly contagious viral neoplastic disease.

      In this work, the importance of nutrient balance and level to the finest degree in feeding animals soon became evident to me. The purpose of optimum nutrition was, and still is, to optimise the immune system and those factors that keep the animals and poultry healthy – humans too. The precision of my lab’s quality control was of utmost importance in determining this.

      As I became wiser about nutrition, I thought back on my cancer research when working in molecular biology. I remembered the change (the decrease) in the amount of cancer tissue we obtained when forced to feed the rats a balanced diet. At that time our minds weren’t open as to the importance of this change. As research biochemists we should have asked the question; why and yet didn’t. Yes, we molecular biologists weren’t that smart, were we?

      When working in nutrition, this realization led me to compare nutritional effects on this rat liver cancer, the liver cancer tissue I used in my research in molecular biology. I was given permission by management to do this with rats. I designed an elaborate experiment, comparing about 32-40 different diets. Just before I started, a friend working in sales for the group told me about amygdalin in cancer prevention, so I doubled my experiment. I redesigned each diet, with and without amygdalin. Those working in this alternative field in treating cancer also refer to Amygdalin as Vitamin B17. B17 is also known as laetrile, a derivative of amygdalin. [My friend lent me the book – World without Cancer – By G Edward Griffin - http://www.amazon.com/World-Without-Cancer-Story-Vitamin/dp/0912986190

      Amygdalin is the bitter tasting cyanide containing molecule found in the kernels of the seeds of bitter almond, apricots, peaches, plums, apples and other fruits such as paw-paw seeds and its leaves. It is also found in cassava and some other plants. The concentration in all of these can vary. The more bitter the higher the concentration of amygdalin, and thus also its cyanide content. The Amygdalin molecule as-is, is not toxic because the cyanide entity in it is molecularly bound*. The cyanide can only be released and become toxic if the amygdalin molecule is broken down to its constituent molecules. This in-suite is done by a series of enzymes present in certain tissue. It is generally stated that only cancer cells have these enzymes while most normal cells don’t, other than the liver. In liver the level of these enzymes is initially very low. The chemistry of amygdalin and how it works can be seen in this website - www.b17.com.au and others. Later in this story I’ll tell you about enzyme induction in the liver and the point of its role in liver.

      Since cyanide is toxic to cells the result is that the cancer cells will be killed by the released cyanide and normal cells not. How it is said to prevent cancer can be checked in Google. I will not go into that now except to say it can be done because I did it.

      *However, if you Google amygdalin and look at the sites on it, specifically Wikipedia and some like it, you will see it says amygdalin is highly toxic. This is a laugh because then I should be dead a long time ago as well as about 1000+others I know who contacted me about using it!

      Effect of Optimum Nutrition and Amygdalin on Azo dye induced Rat liver cancer

      In my experiments using rats, I designed diets to test nutrient balance with added Amygdalin in meeting the stress of a Carcinogen. I used the guidelines I learnt in the feed company’s feeding of poultry and other farm animals in the prevention of disease outbreaks. Under test were balanced and unbalanced nutrition, incorrect eating habits, and an Azo dye carcinogen as the stress factor.

      The experimental procedure and the results of the rat experiments are shown in the appendix. The results showed that the carcinogenicity of the carcinogen in rat liver could be met, namely prevented if the rats were on the optimum diet with added amygdalin. Of importance was the protein level, the vitamin level and the presence of Amygdalin in the diet. It was important that the protein level was not suboptimum. Also, if the protein level in the diet was above the optimum, namely not 22/23% protein but as high a 26%, cancer was found to be present in the liver. [It presented notable differences, but I was not in the position to investigate this.]

      If the vitamin complement was suboptimum, cancer was not prevented whether amygdalin was present or not. Doubling or even tripling the total vitamin complement had no effect.

      In every instance in every diet the presence of amygdalin reduced the comparative amount of tumorous tissue in the liver.

      Story continued

      The results showed that the carcinogenetic effect of the carcinogen in rat liver could be met, namely prevented if the rats were on the optimum diet with added amygdalin. The results also show that the protein level, vitamin level and their balance as well as amygdalin all play a role in protecting rats against the stress of the carcinogen. Amygdalin added to nutrient-inferior diets did not prevent tumour development, but with every diet, including those nutrient deficient, it slowed tumour development. [At that time, as you will see, I used Amygdalin daily which I now know is not the correct way to use it.]

      What is also interesting was that feeding a diet with excess protein was not desirable. If the protein level was as high a 26%, with all other nutrients at optimum levels, cancer was found to be present in the liver. [This is a point to be noted when eating a ketogenic diet; namely the protein must be optimum and balanced. See later]

      In these experiments, no diet, even with added amygdalin, was able to able to arrest tumour growth already present. The reasons for this were to be worked on but not possible or permitted due to subsequent events. A re-analysis of the findings shown by these results added to those tested on humans is presented later, is important in the context of this work.

      The results obtained at the time showed a more positive influence of Amygdalin on the cancer victims than had to then been realized. Had this realization at that time been recognised, more positive work in this field could have been carried out, even though by then the interfering hand of big business via the AMA and its influence through government on the attainability of amygdalin was already been felt, even in South Africa, never mind the USA. At that time, it was easier to get cancer victims to participate than it is now. Now it is so bad, that the big hand of medical business and drug companies through government, even blocks Emails on amygdalin and other alternative known remedies sent to any but private Email address. [See discussion on this new/present realization of these results. Briefly I tried to discuss my findings with St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, including those where I investigated the value high testosterone in causing prostate cancer cells to self-destruct (Friedman), and then more recently the value of a ketogenic diet in cancer control and prevention.]

      Soon after I’d finished that phase of the rat experiments, I presented the findings at a South African Cancer Congress. It was not well received. At that time, I was still firmly entrenched with the feed company. They had just sent me a letter of thanks for the accuracy of my central laboratory’s staff’s analyses of raw materials and feeds. This was also for my QC lab being delegated the laboratory of arbitration countrywide in disputes over nutrient composition of feeds. Because of this, judges in trials of feed dispute accepted our results as final.

      Senior management also stated that because of the accuracy of my EPOL laboratory’s results, we had saved the company millions over the last 3-6 years. Naturally, as would be expected of the head, I asked why they hadn’t given my staff and me a bonus. My tongue was not in my cheek when I said this; I was also at loggerheads with head management for other reasons, but this is not part of this story.

      Post this, I was invited to attend another cancer meeting, where a so-called US cancer expert was to discuss the influence of nutrition and amygdalin on cancer. The heading of his talk was: The fallacy that nutrition and the amygdalin found in apricot pits inhibits cancer growth.

      At the time of this meeting in the medical centre in Johannesburg Len was on leave. This professor started off by scorning/dismissing the value of nutrition in the protection of people against cancer. That was way back in the early 1970’s. We know differently now! What was so annoying to me was the smug way in which he presented himself. The ‘stupid’ section of the audience of about 1000 – cooed at his every smug comment. He then started with his attack against amygdalin in apricot kernels, where he said: Idiotic people working in the alternative field believed the amygdalin found in apricot kernels could cure cancer. He then stated these to be toxic due to their content of cyanide, even saying there could be enough cyanide in two to three of these kernels to kill a person. He then asked the invited group in the audience to sample these. He said they will taste the bitterness of cyanide, but added they must take the precaution to spit them out once they had bitten into and chewed them. Many did that with one kernel, and I let him go smugly on his round. Now you must remember, I am by now fed up with him and his false claims, so when he got near to me, I stood up and said. “I’ll eat them, and many more.” I told him to give me 20, and I would eat them then and there, and continue to do so until he finished his talk. He gave me ten, and I added another ten, I had with me. I knew the amygdalin content of those I had was high. There was a gasp in the audience, with ‘don’t’. I at the same time also asked the audience whether I could, once he’d finished, give a different point of view. At that time, I started eating at the kernels one by one, and finished them chewing each well and helping swallow each with gulps of water. They make your mouth dry.

      He looked arrogantly at the official table, yet in my view a bit sheepishly, asking if he should let me give my point of view. They said no, but the audience said they would like to hear what I’ve got to say; they demanded it. I briefly told them my results of my rat experiments and a bit about Taffy and Johan (see later), who at that time were doing very well at three months and more of using my nutrition and amygdalin program for their cancer.

      I never once said that what I can tell them would cure cancer but told them it would improve the quality of the life a cancer victim had left. And yes, it did, with many countrywide through Lady D. Lady D had told me that she has passed on my information to about 500+ countrywide. I admit that at that time I was still very naïve as to the response I would get from the Cancer Council At the end of these meetings everyone is invited drink tea or coffee with snacks. In such meetings, most of the audience, who stay for refreshments, gather around the quest speaker to hear more of his words of wisdom. On that occasion, of those about seventy who stayed, fifty were gathered around me. This wasn’t well taken by the officials.

      Now, some people reading this, will say, this part of the story should be omitted because it distracts from what I am saying. I disagree because it is part of the story, namely the control by officialdom of what doctors are permitted to do - see later. At that time in South Africa doctors were not allowed to suggest patients use amygdalin. In Australia those living in NSW can, but, not in Queensland and certainly not in the USA. As said, at that time I was on holiday. The next day I went down to Swaziland to play in their amateur golf championships. When I arrived back at work the following Monday morning, I was told I no longer had a job. No reason was given but I knew the reason, which was confirmed by the CEO of the drug company that invited the guest speaker at the said meeting. The Drug Company was also a subsidiary of the Premier Group as was EPOL. This CEO was a golf friend.



      The Human Story of Taffy, Johan and others – 1970’s to 1992

      3>

      While still busy with my rat experiments my colleague, Francine, presented me with her uncle, Taffy aged about 60. He had terminal lung cancer – large cell type. His wife told me she was told Taffy had at most three months to live. He was in the armed forces and was released from the military hospital after Chemo and Radiation treatment for his cancer was to no avail. He was told he should rather spend his last months at home with his wife.

      After only two weeks with me his condition improved; this was based on how he felt and as agreed by his doctor. On this he asked if I would also treat his friend, Johan – mid fifties, who also had lung cancer – small cell type. Johan was given only two weeks to live and had also been sent home from hospital to spend his last days with his wife. I met him on his death bed when being read his last rites. The continuation of this part of the story will be completed later.

      Initially Taffy was driven to the research farm by his wife. The first time he came I had to help him get out of their car and escort him to my office, with Francine, his niece hovering around. His wife then told me his story.

      Taffy worked in defence. He used to smoke but had given this up some years prior to retiring. He was diagnosed with lung cancer just prior to his retirement. He was treated for this with Chemotherapy by oncologists in the top military hospital in the area. His condition steadily worsened until they bedded him in the hospital. I can’t remember the exact time scale. He was later sent home when his wife was told that they could no longer help him.

      I was shown an X-ray of his lungs and told there was total shadow on them. At that time, I had no clue as to how to look at X-Rays. For this reason, I asked my friend, a GP in the area to help me. He showed me how to read X-rays and read Taffy’s. He confirmed that the X-Ray showed total shadow on the lung.

      When it happened, I was a bit taken aback by Francine asking me to treat her uncle, because that was not my purpose. I certainly had no intention of treating cancers victims other than to mention to my friends the possible value of nutrition and the amygdalin story going around in preventing cancer. I certainly was not yet nearly ready to consider treating a person with cancer, or at all. Other than prevent it with optimum nutrition and amygdalin. I couldn’t cure rats with what I’d done, so why should I even consider treating a man with terminal lung cancer. After some thought, and since Francine was a close friend and colleague, I thought OK, why not, since her uncle was quite prepared to be a guinea pig in me trying this. His view was since he any case was dying, what more harm could be done. I by then had studied the literature on human nutrition; the principles being the same. So, I worked out a human diet to be used with Taffy – with the help of studying the principle proposed by Gontzea in his books. I extrapolated back from the chick and rat diets that worked in preventing disease states caused by toxic vectors. I also worked out how to best treat him with Amygdalin. Well, I thought I had, but a re-analysis of results showed what was done could be improved (see later).

      I gave his wife the diet rules, and she said she would follow them to the tee, and she did. I told her that I would start him on the oral intake of 50mg of pure amygdalin (Merck Chemicals) twice a day and would give him 50mg immediately – in the lab. I also told them that in 50mg of Amygdalin there is enough cyanide to at least make him very sick, or even kill him because of his condition. [Cyanide at 1.5mg/kg body weight is lethal.] Taffy was a tall man [1.90 cm/6’3 but, in his condition, only weighed about 70 kg.

      The cyanide in Amygdalin is chemically bound in the molecule and as such it is not toxic. [Many sites in medical literature refute this non-toxicity.] To reassure them that it was OK, both Francine and I then drank down 100mg of the pure amygdalin on our tongues with water. The amount of cyanide in this quantity of amygdalin certainly would have killed Francine if it was not bound in the molecule. She only weighed abot 50kg. I told Taffy all this.

      There and then, he immediately took his first 50mg with water while we sat and chatted further for about an hour. Since nothing happened to him or us in that time, they then went home. His wife stated that since we were all OK, she would give him his other 50mg at supper, and from then on continue doing this twice a day.

      About ten days later Taffy’s wife told me Taffy was doing well and asked me if I would consider doing the same with their good friend Johan, who also had lung cancer. Johan was much worse and was expected to live no longer than two weeks. I went and saw Johan about two days later. When I got there, he was in bed with curtains drawn and being given his last rites by his minister. When I entered his room, he actually shouted at me to get out; well the words were cruder than that and very fierce. I hastily did so.

      His wife went out with me while the minister continued with his rites. She begged me to ignore him, and to please do the same to her husband as I’d done with Taffy. I told her what to do. She also showed me his X-rays, which I took with me and showed them to my Dr friend. He had the small cell type. By then this doctor had agreed to work with me by monitoring the husbands’ conditions, should that be required. This doctor did a lot more with me on other cancer victims than just Taffy and Johan. I thank him on behalf of his patients for that.

      Three months later Taffy and his wife visited me at the lab. Taffy proudly told me he did the driving, and in my office did five press-ups. They also told me he was feeling very good and well, sufficiently to again able to work in his garden. They told me Johan was also up and better and he wondered if they could visit me. I said OK, and a week later they both visited me at the Lab. Johan said he was back at work. He certainly was not dead as surmised!

      There and then I arranged with my doctor friend to have their chests X-rayed. In both the shadow had decreased significantly, but still present in the lower area of the lungs.

      They always gave me weekly reports through Francine on their wellbeing. After about another three months Francine told me Taffy was feeling a bit down, so both he and Johan again visited me at the research farm, both saying they were still OK but felt less well. We again ordered X-rays. These showed the shadow in their lungs had worsened. We upped the dose to 100mg twice a day and this pattern of improvement and lag continued until they were taking as much as 200 mg orally twice a day. Both wives told me that they were following the procedure I had outlined to a tee. [The significance of the up and down health condition was at that time not realized by me or my doctor friend - A pity.]

      At the level of oral intake of amygdalin of 200 mg I became concerned that they might suffer some cyanide poisoning because saliva does contain some of the enzyme that initiates the breakdown of amygdalin to laetrile and possible further. This was also because my thoughts were influenced by the negative hype against Amygdalin, even though neither Taffy or Johan, nor I experienced any ill effect of orally swallowing the Merck amygdalin. [Nor did any of the others later treated the same way via my doctor friend or through Lady D - see later.] If so, it could theoretically cause cyanide toxicity, albeit low, so decided to rather administer it intravenously from then on – see later.